https://wiki.lesswrong.com/api.php?action=feedcontributions&user=Emile&feedformat=atomLesswrongwiki - User contributions [en]2020-08-10T16:42:56ZUser contributionsMediaWiki 1.31.8https://wiki.lesswrong.com/index.php?title=Less_Wrong_meetup_groups&diff=12061Less Wrong meetup groups2013-01-05T12:47:24Z<p>Emile: /* Europe */ +Paris, France, and fix copenhagen link.</p>
<hr />
<div>Less Wrong members sometimes arrange [http://lesswrong.com/tag/meetup/?sort=new meetups] to meet each other in meat space. Some geographic areas have groups that do this regularly. Also see: [[Less Wrong meetup group resources]].<br />
<br />
==USA==<br />
<br />
===Atlanta, GA===<br />
* [http://groups.google.com/group/atlanta-less-wrong-meetup-group Mailing list]<br />
* Email [mailto:hankx7787@gmail.com Hank].<br />
<br />
===Austin, TX===<br />
* Venue: [http://www.jpsjava.com/ JP's Java], on Saturdays at 1:30pm.<br />
<br />
===Bay Area, CA===<br />
<br />
* Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/bayarealesswrong BayAreaLessWrong]<br />
<br />
====Berkeley====<br />
* Meets every Wednesday evening at 7pm<br />
* Meetings are at [http://maps.google.com/maps?f=d&source=s_d&saddr=Downtown+Berkeley+BART&daddr=2128+Oxford+St,+Berkeley,+CA+94704-1311+%28Starbucks%29&geocode=FSzZQQIdbVa2-Ck7jvjKnX6FgDG3LOQ7rN5ZmA%3BFW7bQQIdQl62-CEGuQ_bapaUqCmz2L6SnX6FgDHtCjCMFeuX-A&hl=en&mra=ltm&dirflg=w&sll=37.86999,-122.26696&sspn=0.001931,0.005284&ie=UTF8&ll=37.870225,-122.266577&spn=0.001931,0.005284&z=18 Oxford Street Starbucks] or Zendo, a private residence.<br />
* For meetup announcements, see the [http://groups.google.com/group/bayarealesswrong BayAreaLessWrong] mailing list.<br />
<br />
====San Francisco====<br />
* Hasn't had a meetup in a while<br />
* Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/lw-sf lw-sf]<br />
<br />
====South Bay====<br />
* [[South_Bay_meetup_group|Wiki page]]<br />
* [http://groups.google.com/group/bayarealesswrong Mailing list]<br />
* Venue: Private residence, every Tuesday, 7pm<br />
* Formerly hosted at [http://tortuga.coop/ Tortuga]<br />
* Join the mailing list for announcements, new location, &c.<br />
<br />
====Sausalito (Marin)====<br />
* Venue: [http://maps.google.com/maps?q=475+Gate+5+Road,+Sausalito,+CA+94903 475 Gate 5 Road, Suite #300, Sausalito, California 94903], Tuesdays, 7pm<br />
* Hosted by: Gustave Wuterich, Nevin Freeman<br />
* For further information: Email [mailto:guswut@gmail.com Gustave] or stop by the [https://groups.google.com/group/bayarealesswrong/browse_thread/thread/e391628ee3834b46 SF Bay Area] discussion group for further contact details.<br />
<br />
===Cambridge, MA===<br />
<br />
* [http://www.meetup.com/Cambridge-Less-Wrong-Meetup/ meetup.com group]<br />
* First and third Sunday of every month, 2pm<br />
<br />
===Chicago, IL===<br />
<br />
* [http://www.meetup.com/Less-Wrong-Chicago/ Meetup.com group]<br />
* Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/less-wrong-chicago Less Wrong Chicago]<br />
<br />
===Dallas / Fort Worth, TX===<br />
<br />
* Meets every Sunday at 1 PM at America's Best Coffee in Arlington<br />
* Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/dfw-lesswrong-meetup]<br />
<br />
===Fort Lauderdale, FL===<br />
<br />
* Meetings every Saturday 6pm-9pm<br />
* Location: [http://g.co/maps/9yrzs map]<br />
* Contact: [mailto:cfibroward@gmail.com Lance Bush]<br />
<br />
===Washington, DC===<br />
<br />
* Recurring meetup most Sundays at 15:00.<br />
* Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/lesswrong-dc Less Wrong DC]<br />
* Contacts: [http://lesswrong.com/user/rocurley rocurley], [http://lesswrong.com/user/maia maia] or [http://lesswrong.com/user/PhilipL PhilipL].<br />
<br />
===Madison, WI===<br />
<br />
* Meets every Sunday at 7pm, often in people's houses or in coffee shops<br />
* Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/lesswrong-madison Madison mailing list]<br />
* Contact: [http://lesswrong.com/message/compose/?to=orthonormal orthonormal]<br />
<br />
===New York City, NY===<br />
<br />
The [[NYC meetup group]] is very large and meets frequently. The NYC community was profiled here as a [http://lesswrong.com/lw/4ul/less_wrong_nyc_case_study_of_a_successful case study]. Please join the mailing list!<br />
<br />
* Weekly, Tuesday, 7-11pm, Private Residence. Occasionally on Thursdays as well.<br />
* Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/overcomingbiasnyc Main Google Group]<br />
<br />
===Ohio===<br />
<br />
* Central Ohio meets on the third Sunday at the Max & Erma's in Wilmington (between Cincinnati, Columbus, and Dayton)<br />
* Irregular city-specific meetups. Join mailing list for details!<br />
* Mailing lists: [http://groups.google.com/group/less-wrong-ohio Less Wrong: Ohio], [http://groups.google.com/group/less-wrong-cleveland Less Wrong: Cleveland]<br />
<br />
===Philadelphia, PA===<br />
<br />
* We are in the process of establishing a regular meetup group and time. Please feel free to join us!<br />
* Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/lesswrong-philadelphia LessWrong Philadelphia]<br />
<br />
===Pittsburgh, PA===<br />
<br />
* Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/lw-pgh Pittsburgh Less Wrong]<br />
<br />
===Portland, OR===<br />
<br />
* Current schedule: Every two weeks, Saturday 12-2 PM. Kenton Station (8303 North Denver Avenue Portland, OR 97217). Next meeting is October 20th, 2012.<br />
* Location may be changed before each meetup; check the mailing list to know for certain where it will be.<br />
* Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/lesswrong-portland LessWrong Portland]<br />
<br />
===Research Triangle, NC (Raleigh/Durham/Chapel Hill)===<br />
<br />
* Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/RTLW Research Triangle Less Wrong]<br />
<br />
===Salt Lake City, UT===<br />
<br />
* Google Group/mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/lesswrongslc?hl=en]<br />
<br />
* and Google Site: [https://sites.google.com/site/lesswrongsaltlakecity/]<br />
<br />
===Socorro, NM===<br />
<br />
* Website: [http://nmt.edu/~waffles/baycon nmt.edu/~waffles/baycon]<br />
* Usually meets Sunday evenings in Cramer 101 at NMT (check website for firm schedule)<br />
* Contact: [http://lesswrong.com/message/compose/?to=jcrawfordor jcrawfordor]<br />
<br />
===Southern California, CA===<br />
<br />
* Typical Venue: Restaurants in Los Angeles and Orange County<br />
* Schedule: About once a month, on a weekend<br />
* Primary Organizer: [http://lesswrong.com/user/JenniferRM/ JenniferRM] [[User:JenniferRM|JenniferRM]]<br />
* Mailing List: [http://groups.google.com/group/LW-SoCal-Announce Less Wrong Southern California Announcements]<br />
* Calendar: [https://www.google.com/calendar/embed?src=h57ej586rdo3jmld14hrk51m1c%40group.calendar.google.com&ctz=America/Los_Angeles SoCal LW Meetups]<br />
<br />
For help with transportation, check for carpool opportunities in meetup announcements and comments.<br />
====Los Angeles====<br />
<br />
* Biweekly, Wednesdays, 7pm - 9pm, in the 2nd floor wine bar of the [http://www.westsidetavernla.com/ Westside Tavern] in the [http://maps.google.com/maps?q=10850+West+Pico+Blvd,+Suite+312,+Los+Angeles,+CA+90064 Westside Pavillion].<br />
* Mailing List: [http://groups.google.com/group/LW-SoCal-Announce Less Wrong Southern California Announcements]<br />
<br />
===Seattle, WA===<br />
<br />
* Meets the 2nd and 4th Sundays of each month in the U-District, see mailing list for details.<br />
* Eastside meetups are happening on an ad-hoc schedule, see mailing list for details.<br />
* Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/lw-seattle LW-Seattle]<br />
<br />
===St Louis, MO===<br />
<br />
* We have a new [http://www.meetup.com/lesswrong/ Less Wrong St. Louis group] at meetup.com.<br />
<br />
==Canada==<br />
<br />
===Toronto===<br />
<br />
*Venue: Bars by Dundas subway station, currently upstairs at [http://www.imperialpub.com/the_imperial_pub The Imperial Public Library] 54 Dundas St. E.<br />
*Schedule: Weekly, alternating Tuesdays and Thursdays at 8 PM. Join the mailing list for details.<br />
*Mailing List: [http://groups.google.com/group/lesswrongtoronto?hl=en Toronto Google Group]<br />
<br />
===London===<br />
*We do not yet have regular meetups due to lack of members.<br />
*Contact [http://www.facebook.com/aExhumateGod Tuxedage] for details.<br />
<br />
===Waterloo===<br />
<br />
*Venue: [http://www.williamsfreshcafe.com/170-university-ave-west-recently-renovated Williams Fresh Cafe], on Mondays at 8pm.<br />
*Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/lesswrongwaterloo Waterloo Google Group]<br />
<br />
===Ottawa===<br />
<br />
We're still working out where and how often the group will meet. <br />
*Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/less-wrong-ottawa Ottawa Google Group]<br />
<br />
===Vancouver===<br />
<br />
We meet every week, usually somewhere in Kitsilano or downtown.<br />
<br />
We do most of our organizing on a mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/vancouver-rationalists Vancouver Rationalists]<br />
<br />
==Europe==<br />
<br />
===London, UK===<br />
<br />
* Venue: variable, see list and LessWrong. Look for the [https://docs.google.com/document/d/1SfpkAxDohNsf40svbeXYmRUOiZI4nmI91-qveAnvMtQ/edit?hl=en Art Lebedev paperclip] sign on our table.<br />
* Schedule: No schedule at present. <br />
* Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/lesswronglondon/ LessWrongLondon]<br />
<br />
===Oxford, UK===<br />
<br />
* Oxford Rationality Meetups<br />
* Venue: Exeter College<br />
* Schedule: Saturday termtimes - normally 6-8pm.<br />
* Contact [http://lesswrong.com/user/Larks Larks] or [http://lesswrong.com/user/alexflint AlexFlint] for details.<br />
<br />
===Cambridge, UK===<br />
<br />
*Venue: JCR, Trinity College ([[Cambridge UK Meetup Directions|Directions]]).<br />
*Schedule: 11am Sundays during University term time. Meetings during university vacations with irregular times and places -- join the mailing list to see when something's going to happen, or to suggest a meetup.<br />
*Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/cambridgelesswrong CambridgeLessWrong]<br />
*Contact [http://lesswrong.com/user/AlexeyM AlexeyM] or [http://lesswrong.com/user/Jonathan_Lee Jonathan_Lee]<br />
<br />
===Helsinki, Finland===<br />
* [[Helsinki meetup group]]<br />
<br />
===Budapest, Hungary===<br />
<br />
*Venue: California Coffee Company Basilica (coffee shop), Szent Istvan ter 4-5. [http://www.californiacoffeeco.net/?page_id=50&lang=en Link]<br />
*Schedule: weekends, see mailing list.<br />
*Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/budlesswrong BudLessWrong]<br />
*Contact [http://lesswrong.com/user/AlexeyM AlexeyM] or [http://lesswrong.com/user/katyusha katyusha]<br />
<br />
===Brussels, Belgium===<br />
[[Brussels meetup group]]<br />
* contact : [http://lesswrong.com/user/Axel/ Axel]<br />
* venue : La Fleur en Papier Doré: Rue des Alexiens 55 1000 Bruxelles<br />
* frequency : monthly (usually Saturday at noon)<br />
* average attendance : see dedicated [[Brussels meetup group]] page<br />
<br />
===Berlin, Germany===<br />
* Mailing list: [https://groups.google.com/d/forum/lw-berlin lw-berlin]<br />
* Contact [http://lesswrong.com/user/spuckblase spuckblase] or [http://lesswrong.com/user/blob blob]<br />
* Schedule: biweekly, alternating Saturday and a weekday<br />
<br />
===Copenhagen, Denmark===<br />
* Mailing list: [https://groups.google.com/group/less-wrong-copenhagen less-wrong-copenhagen]<br />
<br />
===Moscow, Russia===<br />
* Venue: “Subway” restaurant, Ostozhenka 14.<br />
* Schedule: on Saturdays every three weeks. <br />
* Discussion and announcements in Russian: [http://lesswrong.ru/forum/index.php/topic,41.0.html Rationality Forum].<br />
* Contact: lw@lesswrong.ru.<br />
<br />
===Paris, France===<br />
* Mailing list: [https://groups.google.com/d/forum/lesswrong-france lesswrong-france]<br />
* Contact [http://lesswrong.com/user/Emile Emile] or [http://lesswrong.com/user/Morendil Morendil]<br />
* Schedule: irregular<br />
<br />
==Australia==<br />
<br />
===Melbourne===<br />
<br />
* Three regular meetups: Practical rationality (1st Fri each month), outreach (schedule still unsettled), and social (3rd Fri each month).<br />
* Venue: Practical rationality at [http://trikeapps.com/contact Trike] (usually - check the meetup post), social at Ben's house (look for a meetup post with more hints).<br />
* Mailing list: [http://groups.google.com/group/melbourne-less-wrong Melbourne Less Wrong]<br />
<br />
==Blog posts==<br />
<br />
* [http://lesswrong.com/lw/2p5/humans_are_not_automatically_strategic/ Humans are not automatically strategic] by [[AnnaSalamon]]<br />
* [http://lesswrong.com/lw/4ul/less_wrong_nyc_case_study_of_a_successful/ Less Wrong NYC: Case Study of a Successful Rationalist Chapter] by [[Cosmos]]<br />
* [http://lesswrong.com/lw/5c0/epistle_to_the_new_york_less_wrongians/ Epistle to the New York Less Wrongians] by [[Eliezer Yudkowsky]]<br />
<br />
==See also==<br />
<br />
* [[The Craft and the Community]] (sequence)<br />
* [[Group rationality]]<br />
* [[Less Wrong meetup group resources]]<br />
* [http://lesswrong.com/lw/43s/starting_a_lw_meetup_is_easy/3gbz Yearly LW site visitors by city]<br />
<br />
[[Category:Meta]]<br />
[[Category:Meetup groups]]</div>Emilehttps://wiki.lesswrong.com/index.php?title=Simple_math_of_everything&diff=7804Simple math of everything2011-10-31T14:06:19Z<p>Emile: /* Blog posts */ (fix name)</p>
<hr />
<div>{{Quote|<br />
But for people who can read calculus, and sometimes just plain<br />
algebra, the drop-dead basic mathematics of a field may not take that<br />
long to learn. And it's likely to change your outlook on life more than<br />
the math-free popularizations ''or'' the highly technical math.<br />
|[http://lesswrong.com/lw/l7/the_simple_math_of_everything/ The Simple Math of Everything]}}<br />
<br />
==Computer science==<br />
<br />
===Amdahl's law===<br />
<br />
Relates the speedup of a sub-task to the resulting speedup of the whole.<br />
Trivially true, but often needed to knock down false intuition.<br />
<br />
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amdahl%27s_law on Wikipedia], long with examples<br />
* [http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/AmdahlsLaw/ on MathWorld], short without examples<br />
<br />
===Asymptotic notation===<br />
<br />
Used to abstract away units and fixed overhead when analyzing resource<br />
usage.<br />
<br />
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_O_notation on Wikipedia], long<br />
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_O_notation#The_family_of_Bachmann.E2.80.93Landau_notations cheat sheet] from the same article<br />
<br />
===Deterministic finite state automata===<br />
<br />
Traditional square one of theoretical computer science, with many<br />
practical applications.<br />
<br />
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deterministic_finite_state_machine on Wikipedia], definition and example<br />
* [http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/cline/ear/automata/CS341-Fall-2004-Packet/2-Homework/Home04DetFSAs.pdf homework with solutions] (PDF)<br />
<br />
===The pumping lemma for regular languages===<br />
<br />
Illustrates many recurring themes. Understanding the proof and usage of<br />
the pumping lemma will help you understand and apply more famous,<br />
advanced results (e.g. anything involving Turing Machines).<br />
<br />
* [http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~cit596/notes/dave/pumping0.html at Penn Engineering], explanation and examples<br />
* [http://mtc.epfl.ch/courses/TCS-2009/notes/5.pdf handout] (PDF) with concise statement and examples<br />
<br />
===Cantor's diagonal argument===<br />
<br />
An astonishingly elegant technique for proving certain kinds of theorems. Originally introduced by the mathematician Georg Cantor to show that the set of real numbers is uncountable &ndash; that is, there is no one-to-one correspondence between real numbers and natural numbers, but was later found to generalize to several other contexts. Perhaps the most notable uses of this technique, in addition to Cantor's proof, are Alan Turing's answer to the Halting problem, and Gödel's proof of his famous first incompleteness theorem.<br />
<br />
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cantor%27s_diagonal_argument on Wikipedia], definition and a step-through of the proof<br />
* Halting Problem<br />
** [http://www.cse.msu.edu/~torng/Classes/Archives/cps860.95/Documents/Halting/Halting.html at Michigan State], problem, theorem, and proof<br />
** [http://www.ling.ed.ac.uk/~gpullum/loopsnoop.html University of Edinburgh], explanation of proof<br />
<br />
==Links==<br />
<br />
===Books===<br />
<br />
* [http://www.amazon.com/How-Everything-Works-Physics-Ordinary/dp/047174817X/ How Everything Works: Making Physics out of the Ordinary] by Louis Bloomfield<br />
<br />
===Videos===<br />
* [http://www.khanacademy.org/ Khan Academy] 800+ Youtube videos covering everything from basic arithmetic and algebra to differential equations, physics, and finance <br />
<br />
==Blog posts==<br />
<br />
*[http://lesswrong.com/lw/l7/the_simple_math_of_everything/ The Simple Math of Everything] by [[Eliezer Yudkowsky]]<br />
*[http://lesswrong.com/lw/13f/creating_the_simple_math_of_everything/ Creating The Simple Math of Everything] by Matt Simpson, calling for more contributions on the topic.<br />
*[http://lesswrong.com/lw/gl/eric_drexler_on_learning_about_everything/ Eric Drexler on Learning About Everything], by Vladimir Nesov<br />
<br />
==See also==<br />
<br />
*[[General knowledge]]<br />
*[[Technical explanation]]<br />
<br />
{{stub}}<br />
[[Category:Work in progress]]</div>Emilehttps://wiki.lesswrong.com/index.php?title=Simple_math_of_everything&diff=7803Simple math of everything2011-10-31T14:05:54Z<p>Emile: /* Blog posts */ + link to relevant later posts</p>
<hr />
<div>{{Quote|<br />
But for people who can read calculus, and sometimes just plain<br />
algebra, the drop-dead basic mathematics of a field may not take that<br />
long to learn. And it's likely to change your outlook on life more than<br />
the math-free popularizations ''or'' the highly technical math.<br />
|[http://lesswrong.com/lw/l7/the_simple_math_of_everything/ The Simple Math of Everything]}}<br />
<br />
==Computer science==<br />
<br />
===Amdahl's law===<br />
<br />
Relates the speedup of a sub-task to the resulting speedup of the whole.<br />
Trivially true, but often needed to knock down false intuition.<br />
<br />
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amdahl%27s_law on Wikipedia], long with examples<br />
* [http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/AmdahlsLaw/ on MathWorld], short without examples<br />
<br />
===Asymptotic notation===<br />
<br />
Used to abstract away units and fixed overhead when analyzing resource<br />
usage.<br />
<br />
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_O_notation on Wikipedia], long<br />
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_O_notation#The_family_of_Bachmann.E2.80.93Landau_notations cheat sheet] from the same article<br />
<br />
===Deterministic finite state automata===<br />
<br />
Traditional square one of theoretical computer science, with many<br />
practical applications.<br />
<br />
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deterministic_finite_state_machine on Wikipedia], definition and example<br />
* [http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/cline/ear/automata/CS341-Fall-2004-Packet/2-Homework/Home04DetFSAs.pdf homework with solutions] (PDF)<br />
<br />
===The pumping lemma for regular languages===<br />
<br />
Illustrates many recurring themes. Understanding the proof and usage of<br />
the pumping lemma will help you understand and apply more famous,<br />
advanced results (e.g. anything involving Turing Machines).<br />
<br />
* [http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~cit596/notes/dave/pumping0.html at Penn Engineering], explanation and examples<br />
* [http://mtc.epfl.ch/courses/TCS-2009/notes/5.pdf handout] (PDF) with concise statement and examples<br />
<br />
===Cantor's diagonal argument===<br />
<br />
An astonishingly elegant technique for proving certain kinds of theorems. Originally introduced by the mathematician Georg Cantor to show that the set of real numbers is uncountable &ndash; that is, there is no one-to-one correspondence between real numbers and natural numbers, but was later found to generalize to several other contexts. Perhaps the most notable uses of this technique, in addition to Cantor's proof, are Alan Turing's answer to the Halting problem, and Gödel's proof of his famous first incompleteness theorem.<br />
<br />
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cantor%27s_diagonal_argument on Wikipedia], definition and a step-through of the proof<br />
* Halting Problem<br />
** [http://www.cse.msu.edu/~torng/Classes/Archives/cps860.95/Documents/Halting/Halting.html at Michigan State], problem, theorem, and proof<br />
** [http://www.ling.ed.ac.uk/~gpullum/loopsnoop.html University of Edinburgh], explanation of proof<br />
<br />
==Links==<br />
<br />
===Books===<br />
<br />
* [http://www.amazon.com/How-Everything-Works-Physics-Ordinary/dp/047174817X/ How Everything Works: Making Physics out of the Ordinary] by Louis Bloomfield<br />
<br />
===Videos===<br />
* [http://www.khanacademy.org/ Khan Academy] 800+ Youtube videos covering everything from basic arithmetic and algebra to differential equations, physics, and finance <br />
<br />
==Blog posts==<br />
<br />
*[http://lesswrong.com/lw/l7/the_simple_math_of_everything/ The Simple Math of Everything] by [[Eliezer Yudkowsky]]<br />
*[http://lesswrong.com/lw/13f/creating_the_simple_math_of_everything/ Creating The Simple Math of Everything] by Matt_Simpson, calling for more contributions on the topic.<br />
*[http://lesswrong.com/lw/gl/eric_drexler_on_learning_about_everything/ Eric Drexler on Learning About Everything], by Vladimir Nesov<br />
<br />
==See also==<br />
<br />
*[[General knowledge]]<br />
*[[Technical explanation]]<br />
<br />
{{stub}}<br />
[[Category:Work in progress]]</div>Emilehttps://wiki.lesswrong.com/index.php?title=The_Less_Wrong_Video_Game&diff=6377The Less Wrong Video Game2010-09-29T09:30:02Z<p>Emile: +*Rationality power tools</p>
<hr />
<div>This page is for discussing ideas for the Less Wrong video game.<br />
<br />
So far, we're just brainstorming ideas of how we could make a video game for teaching or testing the concepts and techniques discussed at Less Wrong.<br />
<br />
Please feel free to post your own ideas here, or to post summaries of the ideas presented elsewhere.<br />
<br />
Here are links to some threads on the main Less Wrong site where this idea has been discussed:<br />
<br />
*[http://lesswrong.com/lw/14m/open_thread_august_2009/108c Open Thread: August 2009]<br />
*[http://lesswrong.com/lw/16x/open_thread_september_2009/12rz Open Thread: September 2009]<br />
*[http://lesswrong.com/lw/1dt/open_thread_november_2009/17xa Open Thread: November 2009]<br />
*[http://lesswrong.com/lw/2nz/less_wrong_open_thread_september_2010/2krj?c=1 Open Thread: September 2010]<br />
<br />
See also:<br />
<br />
*[http://lesswrong.com/lw/1cu/better_thinking_through_experiential_games/ Better thinking through experiential games]<br />
*[[The Aumann game]]<br />
*[[Puzzle Game Index]]<br />
*[[Rationality power tools]]</div>Emilehttps://wiki.lesswrong.com/index.php?title=FAQ&diff=6286FAQ2010-08-19T07:51:50Z<p>Emile: Undo revision 6285 by Demver5 (talk) (revert advertisement)</p>
<hr />
<div>==Basics==<br />
<br />
===What is Less Wrong?===<br />
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Less Wrong is a site dedicated to furthering understanding and discussion of rationality, the art of finding truth and becoming less wrong about things. We tend to discuss topics centering around decision theory, philosophy, cognitive science, psychology, artificial intelligence, game theory, metamathematics, logic, evolutionary psychology, and economics.<br />
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===Where did Less Wrong come from?===<br />
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Less Wrong started as a long series of posts on the econblog [http://www.overcomingbias.com Overcoming Bias] by Eliezer Yudkowsky, a Research Fellow at the [http://intelligence.org/ Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence]. These sequences attracted a community of people interested in the methods of rationality that they taught. When the community outgrew the Overcoming Bias blog, it moved here to Less Wrong to continue discussing and expanding upon the material.<br />
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==Sequences==<br />
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===What are "the sequences"?===<br />
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The [[sequences]] are the original corpus of posts written by [[Eliezer Yudkowsky]] on [[Overcoming Bias]]. They are a massive and extremely thorough introduction to methods of rationality, rationality-related-fields, and how to avoid common rationality-related mistakes. Most of the articles on Less Wrong, even those by people other than Eliezer, build on material presented in the sequences.<br />
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===I'm already a pretty rational person. Can't I just skip them?===<br />
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The sequences have some pretty advanced stuff. If you don't already know about Bayesian probability, evolutionary psychology, philosophy of quantum physics, decision theory and the other topics covered, you may find them useful. So at least give them a look and see what is there that you haven't learned yet.<br />
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===How difficult is the material in the sequences?===<br />
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It's relatively straightforward. They are written for amateurs without any assumed previous knowledge in the subjects covered.<br />
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===Do I have to read the sequences before posting on Less Wrong?===<br />
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It's a good idea. If your post involves topics that were already covered in the sequences you should build on them, not repeat what has already been said. If your post makes mistakes that were warned against in the sequences, you'll likely be downvoted and directed to the sequence in question.<br />
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On the other hand, we're well aware that it can take a long time to read through several years worth of blog posts, so we've labeled the most important as "core sequences". Looking through the core sequences should be enough preparation for most of the discussions that take place here. We do recommend that you eventually read them all, but you can take your time getting through them as you participate. Before one discusses a specific topic look through to see if if there is any obvious sequence on that topic.<br />
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===Where can I read the sequences?===<br />
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You can find them at the [[Sequences]] page.<br />
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==Feedback==<br />
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===What's all this about upvotes and downvotes?===<br />
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Less Wrong works on similar principles to sites like Slashdot, Digg, and Reddit (it's actually based on Reddit code). When a user sees an item they like, they can click a "vote up" link; when they see something they don't like, they can click "vote down".<br />
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A highly-upvoted article or comment is displayed more prominently than a highly-downvoted article or comment, on the assumption that it is higher quality. Some people also use an article or comment's upvotes to determine whether it's worth reading.<br />
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Upvotes and downvotes also affect the karma of the user who posted the item.<br />
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===What is karma?===<br />
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Karma is the sum of up and down votes on comments and articles you have contributed. An upvote on a comment is worth 1 point, a downvote -1 points. An upvote on an article is worth 10 points, a downvote -10 points.<br />
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===What do I do with karma?===<br />
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You need at least twenty karma to make a top-level article; people with less than twenty can only write comments. Besides that, it's mostly good for bragging rights.<br />
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==Writing articles==<br />
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===When should I write a top-level article?===<br />
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You are allowed to write a top-level article once you have at least twenty karma. You ''should'' write a top-level article if you have twenty karma, you have an important point to make about rationality, and you're familiar enough with the sequences that you don't think you're making a simple mistake. If you want to discuss something, but don't think it's worth it's own top-level article, you can post it in the Open Thread.<br />
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===What are appropriate topics for top-level articles?===<br />
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Anything related directly or indirectly to rationality is appropriate. <br />
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===What are NOT appropriate topics for top-level articles?===<br />
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We have a gentleman's agreement to try as hard as we can to avoid simple surface-level political controversies (see: [http://lesswrong.com/lw/gw/politics_is_the_mindkiller/ Politics is the Mind-Killer]). It's borderline okay to present a political problem in the context of a point about rationality that it exemplifies, but it would probably be bad to write a full article just about why you support one side of a hot-button political issue.<br />
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===I strongly disagree with the Less Wrong consensus on an issue. Is it okay to write a top-level article about it?===<br />
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Absolutely! Just make sure you know ''why'' it's the consensus position, first. Before posting, read what has already been written on the subject to ensure that you are saying something new and not just retracing covered ground. If you aren't sure why the consensus position is the consensus position, feel free to ask in an open thread. Being aware of what has been said about a subject in the past is especially important if you want to argue for the existence of God, claim a universally compelling morality, or suggest a really easy way to make friendly AI without going through all that complicated coherent extrapolated volition stuff. Before tackling the Less Wrong consensus on these issues you may want to first acquire an ''extraordinary'' familiarity with the sequences, the arguments against your position, and the Less Wrong norms on the issue.<br />
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==About the site==<br />
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===How do I submit an article?===<br />
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You can compose a new article using the [http://lesswrong.com/submit/ Create new article] button visible in the top right of the page after you have logged in. You can only submit the article to Less Wrong once you have reached 20 karma points. Prior to that you're welcome to save your work as a draft.<br />
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===How do I submit a comment?===<br />
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After the text of each article is a comment box - click in the text field, and you will be able to write a reply to the article. To reply to a comment, click on the "Reply" link and a comment box will open for you. In either case, you can format your new comment using [[Comment_formatting|a variation of the Markdown syntax]]. A few commands are summarized behind the "Help" link (it shows extra text without opening a new window or browsing away from the page); the most popular are:<br />
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* '''Bold''' and ''italics'': **bold** and *italics*<br />
* Links: [link text](link URL)<br />
** Note that URLs with parentheses often come out wrong - type a backslash ("\") before each close-paren to fix these.<br />
* Blockquotes: > quoted text<br />
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===How do I get my post on the front page?===<br />
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Posts are "promoted" to the front page by the editors on the basis of substantive new content, clear argument, good writing, popularity, and importance. The posts with karma totals in green disks instead of gray circles have been promoted.<br />
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===What is shown in the "New" page?===<br />
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The "New" page shows everything that a particular user can see. This includes drafts by a user as well as all of the public articles on LessWrong.<br />
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So don't worry if you see a draft that you've written in here, only you can see it (until it's submitted to the LessWrong category).<br />
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===I deleted an article, can I undelete it?===<br />
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It is not possible to undelete an article if you delete it. However it is only marked as deleted, not completely removed.<br />
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There is no easy way to get to deleted articles. However if you know the article permalink then you can always get to it, it will have a small note near the article title indicating that the article is marked as deleted. Note that while you can edit the deleted article, it will still be marked as deleted.<br />
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Instead of undeleting an article it is always possible to create a new article and copy and paste the content from the deleted article. Any formatting from rich editing should be copied correctly.<br />
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===How can I read the archive of old posts?===<br />
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The entire archive of old posts is available from the [http://lesswrong.com/recentposts Recent Posts] link on the right on the [http://lesswrong.com main site]. Click on the words "Recent Posts" in the "Recent Posts" column at the right side of the page.<br />
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A table of all Less Wrong posts is available:<br />
*[[Less Wrong/All Articles]]<br />
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Subtables by year:<br />
*[[Less Wrong/2006 Articles]]<br />
*[[Less Wrong/2007 Articles]]<br />
*[[Less Wrong/2008 Articles]]<br />
*[[Less Wrong/2009 Articles]]<br />
*[[Less Wrong/2010 Articles]]<br />
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===How can I report issues with this site?===<br />
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For technical issues, there is a [http://lesswrong.com/issues Report Issues] link at the bottom of the main site.<br />
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===What are the moderation rules? What kind of comments will result in downvotes and what kind of comments could result in a ban?===<br />
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Users can downvote whoever they want, but generally, these kinds of comments are likely to result in downvotes:<br />
* Comments that have no intellectual content, like lolcats, empty insults or spam.<br />
* Comments that are misspelled or have poor grammar. <br />
* Comments that take sides in political battles, like conservative vs. liberal, pro-life vs. pro-choice, global warming, gun control, etc. See [http://lesswrong.com/lw/gw/politics_is_the_mindkiller/ Politics is the Mind Killer].<br />
* Comments that show unfamiliarity with [[LessWrong_Wiki|basic terminology]] or the [[Sequences|Less Wrong sequences]].<br />
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==What are you people talking about?==<br />
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===Why is almost everyone here an atheist?===<br />
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The worldwide rationalist community has, for more than a century now, come to the conclusion that there is almost certainly no God. We consider the non-existence of God as usually defined, (ie. a sentient being who created the universe with intent, is still active in the universe, is omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent, and hears and sometimes answers prayers), to be so conclusively proven that there is usually no further need to discuss it. If you wish to discuss it, please take the time to familiarize yourself with standard atheist arguments, such as those found in Richard Dawkins's book [http://richarddawkins.net/godDelusion The God Delusion], and the arguments in the [http://wiki.lesswrong.com/wiki/Sequences Less Wrong sequences] (most relevant single post: [http://lesswrong.com/lw/11m/atheism_untheism_antitheism "Atheism = Untheism + Antitheism"]). Comments or posts that dispute the non-existence of God without showing a thorough understanding of these arguments will almost certainly be downvoted.<br />
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===Aren't knowledge and truth subjective or undefinable?===<br />
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No. See the essay [http://yudkowsky.net/rational/the-simple-truth The Simple Truth] and the post [http://lesswrong.com/lw/oc/variable_question_fallacies/ Variable Question Fallacies].<br />
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===Can you ever really prove anything?===<br />
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It's complicated. See the sequence [http://wiki.lesswrong.com/wiki/How_To_Actually_Change_Your_Mind#Overly_Convenient_Excuses Overly Convenient Excuses].<br />
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===What's all this talk about probabilities and what is a Bayesian?===<br />
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See the essays [http://yudkowsky.net/rational/bayes An Intuitive Explanation of Bayes' Theorem] and [http://yudkowsky.net/rational/technical A Technical Explanation of Technical Explanation].<br />
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===Why do you all agree on so much? Am I joining a cult?===<br />
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We have a general community policy of not pretending to be open-minded on long-settled issues for the sake of not offending people. If we spent our time debating the basics, we would never get to the advanced stuff at all. Yes, some of the results that fall out of these basics sound weird if you haven't seen the reasoning behind them, but there's nothing in the laws of physics that prevents reality from sounding weird.<br />
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[[Category:UserGuide]]</div>Emilehttps://wiki.lesswrong.com/index.php?title=Decision_theory&diff=6280Decision theory2010-08-17T10:40:10Z<p>Emile: + common abreviations</p>
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<div>{{wikilink}}<br />
'''Decision theory''' is the study of principles and algorithms for making correct decisions—that is, decisions that allow an agent to achieve better outcomes with respect to its goals. Every action at least implicitly represents a decision under uncertainty: in a state of partial knowledge, something has to be done, even if that something turns out to be nothing (call it "the null action"). Even if you don't know how you make decisions, decisions do get made, and so there has to be some underlying mechanism. What is it? And how can it be done better? Decision theory has the answers.<br />
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A core idea in decision theory is that of ''[[expected utility]] maximization'', usually intractable to directly calculate in practice, but an invaluable theoretical concept. An agent assigns utility to every possible outcome: a real number representing the goodness or desirability of that outcome. The mapping of outcomes to utilities is called the agent's ''utility function''. (The utility function is said to be invariant under affine transformations: that is, the utilities can be scaled or translated by a constant while resulting in all the same decisions.) For every action that the agent could take, sum over the utilities of the various possible outcomes weighted by their probability: this is the [[Expected value|expected]] utility of the action, and the action with the highest expected utility is to be chosen.<br />
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==Thought experiments==<br />
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The limitations and pathologies of decision theories can be analyzed by considering the decisions they suggest in the certain idealized situations that stretch the limits of decision theory's applicability. Some of the thought experiments more frequently discussed on [[LW]] include:<br />
*[[Newcomb's problem]]<br />
*[[Counterfactual mugging]]<br />
*[[Parfit's hitchhiker]]<br />
*[[Smoker's lesion]]<br />
*[[Absentminded driver]]<br />
*[[Sleeping Beauty problem]]<br />
*[[Prisoner's dilemma]]<br />
*[[Pascal's mugging]]<br />
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==Blog posts==<br />
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*[http://lesswrong.com/lw/l4/terminal_values_and_instrumental_values/ Terminal Values and Instrumental Values]<br />
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==Sequence==<br />
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*[http://lesswrong.com/lw/16f/decision_theory_an_outline_of_some_upcoming_posts/ Decision theory: An outline of some upcoming posts]<br />
*[http://lesswrong.com/lw/16i/confusion_about_newcomb_is_confusion_about/ Confusion about Newcomb is confusion about counterfactuals]<br />
*[http://lesswrong.com/lw/174/decision_theory_why_we_need_to_reduce_could_would/ Why we need to reduce “could”, “would”, “should”]<br />
*[http://lesswrong.com/lw/17b/decision_theory_why_pearl_helps_reduce_could_and/ Why Pearl helps reduce “could” and “would”, but still leaves us with at least three alternatives]<br />
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==Common Abbreviations==<br />
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* CDT: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causal_decision_theory Causal Decision Theory]<br />
* EDT: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evidential_decision_theory Evidential Decision Theory]<br />
* TDT: [[Timeless decision theory|Timeless Decision Theory]] (LW-only)<br />
* UDT: [[Updateless decision theory|Updateless Decision Theory]] (LW-only)<br />
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More rarely used:<br />
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* XDT: [http://lesswrong.com/lw/15m/towards_a_new_decision_theory/11jo?c=1 Exceptionless Decision Theory]<br />
* ADT: Ambient Decision Theory<br />
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==See also==<br />
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*[[Instrumental rationality]]<br />
*[[Causality]]<br />
*[[Expected utility]]<br />
*[[Timeless decision theory]], [[Updateless decision theory]]<br />
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{{stub}}<br />
[[Category:Concepts]]<br />
[[Category:Decision theory]]</div>Emile